Home

Rubella IgG

IgM is first on the scene after you get rubella. It sticks around for 7 to 10 days in adults and up to a year in newborns. You'll get this test if your doctor thinks you may have rubella Rubella or German measles is a contagious viral infection caused by the rubella virus. On exposure to the rubella virus, a person develops pinkish red rashes, mild fever, swollen lymph nodes, runny nose, headache and joint pain. Rubella is a droplet infection. Two antibodies whose detection is vital to confirm Rubella infection are - IgM and IgG The measurement of rubella IgG antibody avidity can be used to distinguish between recent and remote rubella infection. Antibody avidity (the overall strength of binding between the antigen and antibody) increases with time; this is known as maturation of the immune response The IgG rubella test is ordered when a woman is pregnant or is planning on becoming pregnant. It is ordered whenever a check for immunity against rubella is required. IgM and IgG rubella tests may be ordered when a pregnant woman has signs and symptoms that may indicate a rubella infection. Some signs and symptoms include: Mild feve Rubella Antibodies, IgG and IgM Synonym/acronym: German measles serology. Common use To assess for antibodies related to rubella immunity or for presence of rubella infection. Specimen Serum (1 mL) collected in a gold-, red-, or red/gray-top tube. Place separated serum into a standard transport tube within 2 hr of collection. Normal findings.

Rubella IGG Antibody Test: Purpose, Procedure, and Result

  1. الحصبة الألمانية أو الحميراء (بالإنجليزية: Rubella)‏ هي مرض مُعدي يسببه فيروس الحصبة الألمانية ولا يسبب للطفل إزعاجا أكثر من إزعاج الزكام، وتستمر فترة حضانة الفيروس بعد أن يدخل الجسم من 14 إلى 21 يوماً وعادة يكون 18 يوما ثم تبدأ أعراض المرض في الظهور مثل ارتفاع درجة حرارة الجسم.
  2. Rubella virus specific IgM antibodies are present in people recently infected by rubella virus, but these antibodies can persist for over a year, and a positive test result needs to be interpreted with caution. The presence of these antibodies along with, or a short time after, the characteristic rash confirms the diagnosis. Preventio
  3. في هذا الاختبار يتم فحص تركيز أضداد من نوع (IgG) الموجودة في المصل.الأضداد هي بروتينات تساعد على الوقاية من الأجسام الغريبة مثل الجراثيم, الفيروسات, الديدان وما شابه
  4. في هذا الاختبار يتم فحص تركيز أضداد من نوع (IgM) الموجودة في المصل. (EBV), الحميراء (الحصبة الألمانية - Rubella), هربس (Herpes), فيروسات مسبّبة لالتهاب الكبد, وبكتيريا مثل البروسيلة (Brucella), الكساح (Rickettsia).
  5. Your body makes two rubella antibodies: IgM and IgG. If IgM is found in your blood, but not IgG, you may have had a recent infection. If IgG is present, but not IgM, it could mean that you had an infection in the past or that you had the vaccine. These antibodies mean that you have the protection you need
  6. ation of specific IgG is used to deter

Background: The infection of rubella in pregnancy is worrisome due to the fact that it causes miscarriages, congenital defects, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS). The purpose of this study was to determine the status of Rubella IgG antibody levels both during the antenatal and postnatal periods among pregnant women nonimmune to rubella and the incidence of exposure to rubella in pregnancy Seroconversion of specific rubella antibodies or a significant rise of the IgG titer strongly supports the diagnosis of acute rubella infection. 3 The presence of IgG antibodies to rubella virus indicates a previous exposure either by vaccination or prior rubella infection and suggests immunity. 3 The quantitative determination of specific IgG. The rubella vaccine is usually given as a combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Doctors recommend that children receive the MMR vaccine between 12 and 15 months of age, and again between 4 and 6 years of age — before entering school. It's particularly important that girls receive the vaccine to prevent rubella during future pregnancies Maturation of rubella IgG avidity over time after acute rubella infection. Clin Diagn Virol 1997; 8:105. Macé M, Cointe D, Six C, et al. Diagnostic value of reverse transcription-PCR of amniotic fluid for prenatal diagnosis of congenital rubella infection in pregnant women with confirmed primary rubella infection البحث عن شركات تصنيع Rubella Igg Igm موردين Rubella Igg Igm ومنتجات Rubella Igg Igm بأفضل الأسعار في Alibaba.co

Rubella IgG, IgM Test - Test Results, Normal Range, Cost

LIAISON® Rubella IgM is a sensitive and quantitative assay for early identification of infection in at risk pregnant women. In conjunction with highly specific LIAISON® Rubella IgG II test, Rubella IgM test will allow the laboratory to report clear and unequivocal results. • Number of tests: 10 Rubella virus (RuV) is the pathogenic agent of the disease rubella, and is the main cause of congenital rubella syndrome when infection occurs during the first weeks of pregnancy.. Rubella virus is a member of the genus Rubivirus and belongs to the family of Matonaviridae, whose members commonly have a genome of single-stranded RNA of positive polarity which is enclosed by an icosahedral capsid Rubella is very dangerous for a pregnant woman and her developing baby.Anyone who is not vaccinated against rubella is at risk of getting the disease. Although rubella was declared eliminated from the U.S. in 2004, cases can occur when unvaccinated people are exposed to infected people, mostly through international travel Rubella, also known as German measles, was a disease of childhood that has markedly declined in incidence in the United States since the introduction of routine childhood rubella vaccination. This virus causes a self-limited infection in most hosts, but can have potentially devastating effects on the developing fetus From December 2015 to July 2017, 522 serum samples were collected and tested from pregnant women. The seroprevalence of rubella specific IgG was 94.4%, presumably due to immunity induced by wild-type rubella virus. The seroprevalence of rubella specific IgM was 5.0%, possibly indicating rubella infection

The rubella rash can look like many other viral rashes. So doctors usually confirm rubella with the help of laboratory tests. You may have a virus culture or a blood test, which can detect the presence of different types of rubella antibodies in your blood. These antibodies indicate whether you've had a recent or past infection or a rubella. Rubella Antibody (IgM) - Rubella is an acute exanthematous viral infection of children and adults. Rash, fever and lymphadenopathy characterize the illness. While many infections are subclinical, this virus has the potential to cause fetal infection with resultant birth defects. In the absence of a current or recent infection, a demonstration of specific IgG on a serum sample is evidence of.

A positive result in a well-validated measles or rubella IgG EIA demonstrates a serologic response to antigenic stimulation elicited by either vaccination or natural infection. Although susceptibility to disease is inferred by a negative or equivocal result for virus-specific IgG, not all individuals with such a result may actually lack. Rubella is a viral illness that spreads from person to person by respiratory secretions. Rubella is usually mild and self-limiting, but exposure during pregnancy can result in fetal infection and congenital rubella syndrome. Who. Rubella-containing vaccine is recommended for: children ≥12 months of ag Rubella IgG antibody can be formed following rubella infection or after rubella vaccination. A reactive result is consistent with immune status to rubella virus. Non-reactive and equivocal results flag as abnormal in Epic which indicates non-immune or equivocal immune status to rubella. A non-reactive result does NOT imply rubella infection

A rubella blood test detects antibodies that are made by the immune system to help kill the rubella virus. The test for IgG antibodies is most common and is the test done to see if a woman who is pregnant or planning to get pregnant is immune to rubella. The normal values listed here—called a reference range—are just a guide Rubella IgG and IgM - Diagnosis of Rubella in Pregnancy Rubella is a viral infection that usually causes mild frames, with few or no symptoms in most patients. It is a benign disease in the vast majority of cases, being less dangerous than the flu , for example Rubella IgG antibody can be formed following rubella infection or after rubella vaccination. A reactive result is consistent with immune status to rubella virus. Non-reactive and equivocal results flag as abnormal in Epic which indicates non-immune or equivocal immune status to rubella. A non-reactive result does NOT imply rubella infection

Asymptomatic rubella virus infections are common. Infection during early pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, fetal death, or infants born with severe birth defects known as CRS. DIAGNOSIS. Demonstration of specific rubella IgM or significant increase in rubella IgG in acute- and convalescent-phase specimens LabCorp test details for Rubella Antibodies, IgG. Rubella virus is the cause of German measles, usually a mild exanthem, often subclinical; however, when acquired in utero, rubella virus can cause the congenital rubella syndrome, and lead to fetal demise, malformation, deafness, and mental retardation Pregnant women routinely have a serum rubella IgG titer measured early in pregnancy. Titer is repeated in seronegative women who develop symptoms or signs of rubella; diagnosis is made by a positive serologic test for IgM antibody, IgG seroconversion, or a ≥ 4-fold rise between acute and convalescent IgG titers. Virus may be cultured from nasopharyngeal swabs but is difficult to cultivate

Rubella Serology Testing in Labs CD

Rubella-specific IgG and IgM synthesised by the fetus are detectable at birth in CRS. However, since maternally derived rubella-specific IgG is also present in infants' sera, laboratory diagnosis of CRS is almost invariably made by detection of rubella-specific IgM responses. This response is detectable in almost 100% of CRS cases up to age 3. Rubella is a viral exanthematous infectious disease caused by Rubella virus. The illness follows a typically benign clinical course with rare complications and is subclinical in a large proportion of cases. Symptomatology is generally mild, characterized by fever, malaise, a maculopapular rash of 3.

Epstein-Barr Virus (Infectious Mononucleosis) | Clinical

Rubella Test Lab Tests Onlin

The evaluation of immunity to rubella virus relies on the presence of specific antibodies. This study was undertaken to determine in a cross-sectional survey whether rubella virus circulation in the Istanbul city, induces detectable immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies with a protective level, in a random group of pregnant and non-pregnant women BACKGROUND: Rubella IgG testing is routinely done in prenatal care and seroepidemiological studies. Recently concern was raised that seropositivity rates were decreasing questioning vaccination policies. Manufacturers of rubella IgG assays and authors of seroepidemiological studies use different cut-offs for the definition of seropositivity Rubella, or German measles, is an infectious disease that is caused by the rubella virus. Since the introduction of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, it is a relatively rare condition...

[Full text] Seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgM and IgG

The Rubella IgG (Immunity) tests are performed using the BioPlex 2200 MMRV IgG kit for use with the Bio-Rad BioPlex 2200 System. It is a Multiplex Flow Immunoassay test intended for the qualitative detection of IgG antibodies to rubella virus in human serum Rubella virus specific IgM antibodies are present in people recently infected by rubella virus, but these antibodies can persist for over a year, and a positive test result needs to be interpreted with caution. The presence of these antibodies along with, or a short time after, the characteristic rash confirms the diagnosis rubella. When a patient with suspected rubella has been recently vaccinated (<30 days prior to blood draw) IgM cannot distinguish rubella disease from the response to vaccination. Determination of the rubella genotype is necessary when rubella symptoms occur following an exposure to wild type virus and rubella containing vaccine has been. The igg rubella test is ordered when a woman is pregnant or is planning on becoming pregnant. It is ordered whenever a check for immunity against rubella is required. Igm and igg rubella tests may be ordered when a pregnant woman has signs and symptoms that may indicate a rubella infection Rubella Antibodies (IgG, IgM) Diagnostic - Rubella (German Measles) is a common and usually benign viral infection of children. IgM antibody is detectable 11-25 days after the onset of exanthem, in most individuals 15-25 days after vaccination, and in 90-97% of infants with congenital rubella between 2 weeks and 3 months after birth. Acute and convalescent IgG titers may be interpreted to.

Rubella Test: Definition The rubella test is a routine blood test performed as part of prenatal care of pregnant women. It is sometimes also used to screen women of childbearing age before the first pregnancy . Purpose The test is given to evaluate whether a woman is immune to rubella (German measles ) as a result of childhood exposure or. Rubella-specific IgM reactivity persists for about 1-3 months and false-positive IgM results occur in a range of other infections such as parvovirus B19 infection and Epstein-Barr virus infection (infectious mononucleosis). Rubella-specific IgM reactivity may also be nonspecific and may occur in rubella re-infection (see below)

AccessGUDID - Access Rubella IgG (15099590624897)- The Access Rubella IgG assay is a paramagnetic particle, chemiluminescent immunoassay for the qualitative and quantitative determination of IgG antibodies to the rubella virus in human serum using the Access Immunoassay Systems IgG seroconversion or a significant increase in antibody level, such as a fourfold or greater rise in titre to rubella virus except if the case has received a rubella-containing vaccine eight days to eight weeks prior to convalescent specimen collection Rubella re-infection is a rubella infection in a person who already has rubella antibodies resulting from a documented natural rubella infection or successful rubella immunization.38 Rubella re-infection is typically subclinical and frequently difficult to diagnose; however, a significant increase of antibody titers (IgG and/or IgM) can be. Note: Recent immunisation with the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) may also result in detectable anti-rubella IgM or a significant increase in anti-rubella IgG. Because laboratories do not necessarily have access to this information, all results consistent with possible rubella infection should be reported to a medical officer of health False-positive rubella antibody results were obtained, however, when patients with raised RF levels were tested. If a low rubella IgG antibody titre was present, a high level of RF was required to cause a false-positive IgM result; conversely, in sera with high IgG titres, only a low level of RF was required for interference. Although the false.

IgG seroconversion or a significant increase in antibody level or a fourfold or greater rise in titre to rubella virus in the absence of recent rubella vaccination. The results must be established by the testing of paired sera in parallel German measles, also known as rubella, is a viral infection that causes a red rash on the body. Aside from the rash, people with German measles usually have a fever and swollen lymph nodes.The. Rubella has become quite rare in the United States, thanks to a very successful vaccination program. Before the rubella vaccine was developed in 1969, a rubella epidemic in 1964 and 1965 caused 12.5 million cases of the disease and 20,000 cases of CRS in the United States. In contrast, between 2001 and 2005, there were a total of 68 reported. Test. The most common diagnostic test is rubella-specific IgM serum antibody. The preferred test is capture ELISA. False positive IgM tests are possible, so all positive IgM tests should be confirmed by demonstrating a four-fold rise in rubella-specific IgG serum concentrations between acute and convalescent sera (drawn 2-3 weeks apart), or by measurement of IgG avidity

Dr Lal PathLabs offers home collection booking service for Rubella German Measles Avidity Igg to test for Infections .View details of cost of test, pre test information and report availability on Dr Lal PathLabs Rubella (also known as German measles) is a viral infection spread by direct contact with an infected person or droplet spread from respiratory secretions — it is preventable by vaccine. Most cases of rubella infection are mild and resolve spontaneously within a week. However, maternal infection in non-immune women during pregnancy can cause. Rubella (German measles) is a rare illness that causes a spotty rash. It usually gets better in about 1 week. It can be serious if you get it when you're pregnant. Check if you or your child have rubella. The main symptom of rubella is a red or pink spotty rash. The rash takes 2 to 3 weeks to appear after getting rubella Rubella (German measles) in pregnancy What is rubella? Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is an infection that affects the skin and lymph nodes. It is caused by a virus. Rubella is serious in pregnant women because of the effect it can have on an unborn child In primary rubella infection, antibodies appear as the rash fades. 1 The detection of IgG in high titre one day prior to the onset of rash is evidence of a rapid antibody response consistent with rubella reinfection rather than primary infection. 3 A high IgG avidity index also suggested reinfection. The rash however, was a clinical sign that.

After two MMR II vaccinations 5 years apart, IgG titers for rubella remained sero-positive in 93% of individuals, IgG titers for measles remained seropositive in 82% of individuals, and IgG titers for mumps remained seropositive in 40% of individuals (11). As such, the mumps titer is the only MMR titer which steadily and substantiall RBPG : The BioPlex 2200 Rubella IgG assay uses multiplex flow immunoassay technology. Briefly, serum samples are mixed and incubated at 37 degrees C with sample diluent and dyed beads coated with rubella antigen. After a wash cycle, anti-human IgG antibody conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) is added to the mixture and incubated at 37 degrees C. Excess conjugate is removed in another wash cycle. Read the latest magazines about Rubella and discover magazines on Yumpu.co

The Diamedix Immunosimplicity® Is-Rubella IgG Test Kit is an EIA procedure intended for the qualitative and quantitative detection of antibodies to rubella antigen A positive rubella IgG test result is good—it means that you are immune to rubella and cannot get the infection. This is the most common rubella test done. Negative: This means you are not immune to rubella. If you are a woman thinking about getting pregnant, talk with your doctor about getting a rubella vaccine before pregnancy Rubella re‐infection is a rubella infection in a person who already has rubella antibodies resulting from a documented natural rubella infection or successful rubella immunization. 38 Rubella re‐infection is typically subclinical and frequently difficult to diagnose; however, a significant increase of antibody titers (IgG and/or IgM) can be. a false-positive rubella IgM test result. IgG serology. IgG testing for acute rubella requires demonstration of a rise in titer of antibody against rubella virus, so two serum specimens are always required. The first specimen should be drawn as soon after rash onset as possible. The second specimen should be drawn LIAISON® Rubella IgG II is a sensitive assay able to detect low IgG antibody titers present in vaccinated population reducing the number of samples to be confirmed. 0-0.2 02.3.0 3.0-5.0 5.0-7.0 7.0-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 20-30 ›3

Rubella Antibodies, IgG and IgM definition of Rubella

إن فحص Rubella igg يتم للكشف عن الإصابة بفيروس الحصبة الألمانية إذ يكشف عن الأجسام المضادة التي يكونها جهاز المناعة ضد فيروس الحصبة الألمانية.. يتم تحليل فحص الحصبة الألمانية على. للمرأة قبل الزواج أو التي تخطط للحمل Support the diagnosis of Rubella virus infection. The presence of IgG antibody generally indicates past exposure and immunity or immunization and immunity. The presence of IgM antibody or a fourfold or greater rise in titer of IgG antibodies in paired sera indicates recent infection. Single IgG levels are not useful for supporting the diagnosis.

حصبة ألمانية - ويكيبيدي

ASI Rubella IgG test kit for the detection of human IgG antibodies to the Rubella virus in human serum. Aids in the assessment of a patient's immunological response to rubella and to determine the immune status of individuals with regards to their resistance or susceptibility to rebella infection Rubella Ab, IgG, S Aliases Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching German Measles MMRV RBG RUB IgG, Serum Rubella Rubella Ab, IgG Only, S Serol, Rubella (S) Three-Day Measles TORC

Mytest Rubella IgG/IgM Rapid Test is a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay for the qualitative differential detection of IgG and IgM virus in human serum, plasma or whole blood. Specification: Highly sensitive and specific (>99%) About half of pregnant women who contract a primary infection spread the disease to their fetus. An increase in rubella IgG denotes an acute infection and differentiates rubella from other exanthematous diseases. Expecting women with current rubella infection should be counseled on the consequences of congenital infection. 1 Device Description: The ZEUS ELISA Rubella IgG Test System is designed for the qualitative and/or quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to rubella virus in human serum. This test is intended to be used to evaluate single sera for immune status or paired sera to demonstrate seroconversion, and is for In Vitro diagnostic use

Rubella - Wikipedi

Wechat. Abstract. Between two and seven sera from cases of persistent detection of rubella‐specific IgM for periods in excess of 2.5 months, but in the absence of recent primary rubella or rubella reinfection, were examined for rheumatoid factor, heterophile antibody, and IgM reactivity against toxo‐plasma and a number of viruses 1.1 AI or greater: Positive - IgM antibody to rubella detected, which may indicate a current or past rubella infection. Comments: For workup related to possible rubella infection, acute and convalescent specimens must be labeled as such; parallel testing is preferred and convalescent specimens must be received within 30 days from receipt of the acute specimens Rubella virus (also called German Measles) causes skin rash, fever, swollen glands, and joint pain. Becoming infected with rubella during pregnancy can result in a miscarriage or serious birth defects. The rubella virus vaccine is used to help prevent this disease in adults and children who are at least 12 months old Alibaba.com offers 736 rubella igm products. A wide variety of rubella igm options are available to you, such as quality certification, material, and shelf life Results The overall rubella seropositivity rate was 87.4% (95% CI: 86.6 - 88.3%) and the mean rubella IgG level was 39 IU/mL among young pregnant women aged 19‐23 years

Rubell ppt

enital rubella syndrome. However, the collection of blood samples to detect antibodies from young children is invasive and difficult. Methods. For this study we obtained 853 matched serum and urine samples from 904 healthy students 10 or 14 years of age in the Ibara and Yoshii districts of Okayama, Japan, for a comparison of antibodies for rubella in the matched samples. The serum and urine. IgG seroconversion or a significant increase in antibody level, such as a fourfold or greater rise in titre to rubella virus EXCEPT if the case has received a rubella-containing vaccine eight days to eight weeks prior to convalescent specimen collection. ( NOTE: paired sera must be tested in parallel) To support a clinical diagnosis of rubella (German measles); determination of immune status, especially before or during pregnancy, and after vaccination. Diagnosis of congenital infection. Interpretation: An IgG level of > 10 in a well adult, is indicative or previous infection or vaccination Results: Of the 270 samples evaluated for rubella Immunoglobulin G antibody, 241 (89.3%) were positive and 29 (10.7%) were negative. Rubella IgG seroprevalence was not associated with age. The rubella vaccine is a live vaccine (Meruvax II) that is used to prevent rubella infection (German measles).. Rubella is a highly contagious disease that is caused by a virus. In children, the disease is usually mild with fever and a rash.However, rubella is especially dangerous during pregnancy as it can cause a miscarriage or serious birth defects..

أضداد من نوع IgG - تعرفوا على طرق أجراء الفحص وتحليل النتائ

أضداد من نوع IgM - تعرفوا على طرق أجراء الفحص وتحليل النتائ

Measles, Mumps, Rubella Antibody - Health Encyclopedia

Rubella Virus IgG Avidity ELISA - The Native Antigen CompanyNational Women’s Health Week - CTK BiotechHAV IgG/IgM Rapid Test CE - CTK BiotechMumps Antibody Test | Medical Laboratories8 measlesSkin rash in a patient with infectious mononucleosis | BMJJournal of Postgraduate Gynecology & ObstetricsMedicine by Sfakianakis G

Serum rubella IgM test results that are false positives have been reported in persons with other viral infections (e.g., acute infection with Epstein-Barr virus [infectious mononucleosis], recent cytomegalovirus infection, and parvovirus infection) or in the presence of rheumatoid factor A rubella IgM-positive result in a single serum sample is confirmatory for an acute rubella infection. However, there are several important issues to consider when interpreting rubella IgM results: test sensitivity, including timing of serum sample collection; test specificity; rubella disease prevalence; and the epidemiological context Rubella (German measles) is a worldwide, mild, exanthematous and highly infectious viral disease of children in unvaccinated populations. Its prominence and the rational for immunising against rubella is the high risk of congenital malformations associated with rubella infection during pregnancy, something first observed by Dr Norman McAlister Gregg during the rubella epidemic in Australia. The laboratory diagnosis of rubella is established by • Isolation of rubella virus, OR • Demonstration of rubella-specific IgM antibody, OR • Infant rubella antibody level that persists at a higher level and for a longer period than expected from passive transfer of maternal antibody (i.e., rubella titer that does not dro

  • ماكينة طباعة الصور على الكيك.
  • المصنع الوطني للبيوت الجاهزة عجمان.
  • Absent radii.
  • دواء برونشيكم اس للاطفال.
  • خلفيات اسم ملك.
  • اختبار لكشف الحالة النفسية.
  • عصير اليقطين للأطفال.
  • ماهي الخاصيه التي لا تنطبق على البريونات.
  • الآثار الإيجابية والسلبية للعولمة PDF.
  • متجر القبعه السوداء فورت نايت.
  • متى يعود الشعر للنمو بعد التساقط.
  • يوم المزيد إسلام ويب.
  • التأمين ضد الحريق.
  • الاسم والفعل والتفريق بينهما.
  • فين.
  • بنطلون قطيفة حريمي.
  • الساحر الأسود.
  • IKEA Kitchen 3D Planner download.
  • Completely free clip art.
  • مكونات نظام تحديد المواقع الجغرافية.
  • التنفيس الانفعالي بالانجليزي.
  • سقالات للايجار.
  • كتاب القبائل العربية في مصر في نهاية القرن العشرين.
  • Polycoria.
  • ماهو الماموجرام.
  • تبرز الرضيع في الشهر الثالث.
  • فلوتاك.
  • تجربتي مع بذور الرجلة للتنحيف.
  • تنظيف الجسم من آثار الأشعة.
  • طريقة عمل العوامة الهشه.
  • أجزاء الفرامل.
  • تجربتي مع وسواس الإيدز.
  • احزمة التايكواندو في تونس.
  • إشارات المرور في سلطنة عمان.
  • كيفية استيراد ملابس من إيطاليا.
  • موتوسيكل اطفال bmw.
  • علاج حروق الأنف من الداخل.
  • الألعاب الأولمبية لذوي الاحتياجات الخاصة.
  • برنامج وضع العلم على الصورة.
  • حالات واتس حزينة كتابة.
  • وصايا لقمان الحكيم pdf.